Datasett: Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE Senegal (2008)

Sammendrag

Le projet de recherche MAFE est une initiative de grande ampleur dont l'objectif est d'étudier les migrations entre l'Afrique subsaharienne et l'Europe. - Attention, la documentation des enquêtes MAFE est en langue anglaise. -

__________


The MAFE project is a major research initiative focused on migration between Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. It brings together ten European and African research centres working on international migration.

In the early XXIth Century, international migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe has generated increasing public and policy attention. The flotilla of boats bringing would-be migrants to the Canary Islands, and attempts to reach Spanish territory in Ceuta and Mellila have drawn a rapid response from Europe in the form of new policy measures. Yet the scope, nature and likely development of Sub-Saharan African migration to Europe remained poorly understood, and, as a result, European polices may be ineffective. A major cause of this lack of understanding was the absence of comprehensive data on the causes of migration and circulation between Africa and Europe.

The MAFE project aimed at overcoming this lack of understanding by collecting unique data on the characteristics and behavior of migrants from Sub-Saharan countries to Europe. The key notion underpinning the project was that migration must not only be seen as a one-way flow from Africa to Europe. The argument was that return migration, circulation and transnational practices are significant and must be understood in order to design better migration policy.

The MAFE project focused on migration flows between Europe (Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) and Senegal, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ghana, which together accounted for over a quarter of all African migration to the EU at the time of the survey. In each of these "migration systems", the survey was designed to document four key areas:
    - Patterns of migration :
              *the socio-demographic characteristics of migrants,
              *the routes of migration from Africa to Europe, and
              *the patterns of return migration and circulation.
    - Determinants of migration: looking at departure, but also return and circulation and taking into account the whole set of possible destinations.
    - Migration and Development: MAFE documents some of the socio-economic changes driven by international migration, looking as often as possible at both ends of the Afro-European migration system, at the individual level.
    - Migrations and Families: the data collected by the MAFE project can be used to study all sorts of interactions between family formation and international migration. Although the survey was primarily designed to study international migration, it can also be used to study other phenomena, especially in Africa: domestic mobility, labor market participation, family formation, etc.
Comparable data was collected in both 3 sending and 6 destination countries, i.e. in sub-Saharan Africa and in Europe. The data are longitudinal - including retrospective migration, education, work and family histories for individuals - and multi-level - (with data collected at the individual and household levels, in addition of macro-contextual data).
     
Please consult the official MAFE website for further details : https://mafeproject.site.ined.fr/en/

Variabelgrupper

Full tittel

Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE Senegal (2008)

Alternativ tittel

MAFE Senegal

Parallell tittel

Migrations entre l'Afrique et l'Europe - MAFE Sénégal (2008)

Identifikasjonsnummer

IE0216A

Ansvarlig forfatter

Navn Tilknytning
BEAUCHEMIN Cris INED

Andre identifikatorer og krediteringer

Navn Tilknytning Rolle
AMETEPE Fofo INED
BAIZAN Pau UPF Project coordinator / Trainer (Spain questionnaire)
BRINGE Arnaud INED
CASTAGNONE Eleonora FIERI Project coordinator / Trainer (Italy questionnaire)
DAURELE Catherine INED Coordination assistant
DIAGNE Alioune IPDSR Trainer (Senegal household and biographic questionnaire)
FLAHAUX Marie-Laurence INED
GASPARETTI Fedora FIERI Trainer (Italy questionnaire)
GONZALEZ-FERRER Amparo UPF / CSIC Project coordinator / Trainer (Spain questionnaire)
KABBANJI Lama INED
KRAUS Elisabeth CSIC
LAURENT Raphaël INED
LEJBOWICZ Tania INED
LESSAULT David INED Trainer (Senegal biographic questionnaire)
LIU Mao-Mei UPF Trainer (Spain questionnaire)
MEZGER Cora INED
MORO Anastasia DOXA Trainer (Italy questionnaire)
NAPPA Jocelyn INED
NAZIO Tiziana FIERI
OBUCINA Ognjen UPF
PASTORE Ferrucio FIERI
QUAGLIA Martine INED Trainer (Senegal household questionnaire)
RAZAFINDRATSIMA Nicolas INED
REDA V. DOXA Trainer (Italy questionnaire)
ROUGIER Frédérique CSA Trainer (France questionnaire)
SAKHO Papa IPDSR Project coordinator
THEVENIN Marc INED
TOMA Sorana INED
VICKSTROM Erik INED
VIVIER Géraldine INED Trainer (Senegal biographic questionnaire / France questionnaire / Spain questionnaire)

Produsent

Navn Tilknytning Forkortelse Rolle
Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques France INED
Université Cheikh Anta Diop Senegal UCAD
Forum Internazionale ed Europeo di Ricerche sull'immigrazione Italy FIERI
University Pompeu Fabra Spain UPF
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Spain CSIC

Produksjonsdato

2008

Sponsor/finansierende institusjon

Navn Forkortelse Rolle Bevilgning
European Community's Seventh Framework Programme 217206
Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques INED
Agence Nationale de la Recherche ANR
Région Ile de France IDF
FSP programme "International Migrations, territorial reorganizations and development of the countries of the South"

Datadistributør

Navn Tilknytning Forkortelse
Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques INED

Notater

The MAFE project involved 10 organisations representing a wide range of disciplines and institutions. Through the researchers involved, it combined the approaches of demographers, geographers, economists and of socio-anthropologists.
The partners brought a combination of quantitative and qualitative skills. Each of the work packages brought together researchers with strong quantitative background and know-how in processing statistical analysis and large-scale data-sets, and researchers with a strong qualitative knowledge on migration patterns and African contexts.

Both for project organisation and the relevance of project results, it was essential to involve European and African partners on the same footing. In addition to the North/South balance, attention has been paid to the balance within the receiving countries, between Western European countries and Southern European countries, new and older receiving countries.

Liste av nøkkelord

Emneklassifisering

4. Migrations internationales, discrimination, intégration

Innsamlingsdato

Start Slutt Syklus
2007-07 2007-08 Senegal pilot survey
2008-01 2008-06 Senegal (Dakar) survey
2008-03 2008-06 Italy survey
2008-03 2008-07 France survey
2008-05 2008-06 Spain survey

Land

Geografisk omfang

Six European countries and three African countries participated in the MAFE surveys. Data collection was carried out in both sending countries in Africa and destination countries in Europe, in order to constitute transnational samples.
For MAFE Senegal, data was collected in Senegal (African part) and France, Italy and Spain (European part).

Analyseenhet

Household
Individual

Univers

SENEGAL
Household: Households selected randomly from the updated list of households in the selected primary sampling units. Two strata were distinguished: the households with migrants and those without migrants.
Individual: People aged 25-75 at the time of the survey, born in Senegal and who have/had Senegalese citizenship. This lower age limit was set in order to obtain informative life histories. By not including respondents younger than 25, the resources were used more effectively. The place of birth criterion was used to exclude people who were born out of their country of origin in order to exclude second generation migrants in Europe and to increase the homogeneity of sample.
Up to two return migrants and partners of migrants, and one randomly selected other eligible person. Return migrants were eligible if their first departure was above at 18 or over.  

EUROPE
In all the European countries, the surveys were conducted among males and females who were aged 25 and over at the time of the surveys, and who were 18 or over when they had left Africa for the first time for at least one year. For MAFE Senegal, only migrants from Senegal were interviewed. This was a way to reinforce the homogeneity of the sample by excluding people of the 1.5 generation who are often "passive" migrants.

In theory, surveyed individuals must be representative of the whole population with these characteristics in the departure region and in the destination countries. The sample is composed of males and females. In Europe, in spite of a gender demographic disequilibrium, the objective was to include 50% of males and 50% of females in order to allow gender analyses.

Datainnsamler

Frekvens av datainssamling

SENEGAL
In Senegal, data collection activities started in November 2007 (selection of survey sites in Dakar and listing of households in the selected sites). They ended in September 2008 (data entry and data cleaning). Overall, 11 months were necessary to carry out all the activities related to data collection, and fieldwork lasted a little less than 6 months.
Data collection was organized in two separate stages: the household survey was first conducted, and the biographic survey started after the household survey had been completed. The data collected in the household survey was used to prepare a sampling frame of individuals for the biographic survey; quick data entry of part of the questionnaires of the household survey was thus necessary before starting data collection for the biographic survey. Although this approach had advantages, it also lengthened the data collection process. This approach was not used for surveys in Ghana and DR Congo, where both surveys were conducted simultaneously.

EUROPE
In France, Italy and Spain the surveys were conducted in 2008, before the start of the EU funded project. Data collection activities lasted approximately 6 months.
Note: A second round was carried in Spain in 2010. About 400 Senegalese migrants were interviewed using exactly the same questionnaire. The data will be released in the future. For more information, contact: pau.baizan@upf.edu

Utvalgsprosedyre

SENEGAL

A three-stage stratified random sample was used. At the first stage, primary sampling units (census district) were selected randomly with varying probabilities. At the second stage, households were selected randomly in each of the selected primary sampling units (PSUs). At the third stage, individuals were selected within the households.

a) Selection of primary sampling units (first stage)
In the Senegal survey, the sample was designed to be probabilistic and representative of the Dakar region, and at the same time to maximize the chance of reaching households 'affected' by international migration (rare population). The sampling frame used to select the primary sampling units was the 2002 Population Census. The census districts (CD) -which are usually used as the primary sampling units in surveys in Senegal - have an average size of 100 households in urban areas. 60 primary sampling units were randomly selected at the first stage. This number of primary sampling units allows reaching a balance between a large dispersion of households (which decreases sampling errors) and a more concentrated sample (which reduces costs).
The region of Dakar was divided into 10 strata of equal size, according to the % of migrant households within each of them (in average, 11.6% of the households were 'migrants'). 6 CD's per stratum were drawn, with a probability proportional to the number of households within each CD. In other words, census districts with a large number of migrants were more likely to be selected than those with low numbers of migrants. This approach increases the number of migrants interviewed in the individual survey, while still having a probabilistic sample representative of the target area.
The listing of the households in the 60 selected primary sampling units was updated in order to select the sample of households. This stage was essential because a lot of changing occurred in some large neighbourhoods of Dakar since the previous census (2002), especially in suburban areas. This counting also allowed distinguishing between households with and without migrants.

b) Selection of households (second stage)
The following approach was used in MAFE-Senegal:
- Households were selected randomly (using systematic random sampling) from the updated list of households in the selected PSUs. Two strata were distinguished: the households with migrants and those without migrants. A maximum of 50% of households with migrants were drawn in each district. Selected households that could not be reached (absence, refusals,…) were not replaced during the fieldwork. Replacement would distort the computation of sampling weights, and could also lead to bias the sample. To take account of refusals and absences of households, 22 households were selected to reach an effective sample size of 20 households per CD on average (a total of 1 200 households in Dakar region was to be reached).

c) Selection of individuals (third stage)
Next, individuals were selected within households for the life history survey. In each household, individuals were classified into 3 strata (which do not overlap):
- Return migrants, who were aged 18 or over at their (first) departure (or whose age at departure is unknown) ;
- Spouses/partners of migrants (if the spouse/partner is not a return migrant himself/herself) ;
- Other people.
Then, a simple random sample was done in each household to select:
- Up to 2 return migrants (random selection if more than two in the households, all the return migrants were selected if not more than two in the household)
- Up to 2 Spouses/partners of migrants (random selection if more than two in the household)
- Another individual.
In Senegal, an additional condition was that people had the Senegalese citizenship at birth. This condition was dropped in the Ghana and DR Congo surveys.   

Two types of questionnaires were used in the departure countries: the household questionnaire and the individual life history questionnaire.
- The first questionnaire was used among a representative sample of households in the target region.
- The second questionnaire was used among a sample of individuals in the selected households, targeting both return migrants and non-migrants. The household questionnaire was thus used as the sampling frame for the selection of individual respondents.



EUROPE

The objective of the survey was to obtain a sample 'as representative as possible' of the African populations (Congolese, Ghanaian, Senegalese) in the destination countries (150 individuals per origin and destination country). The way the sample was constituted may vary across countries, but some common principles were respected:
- The composition of the sample should be as close as possible to the population of (Congolese, Ghanaian, Senegalese) migrants in the country in terms of gender, geographic distribution, age, socio-economic category or occupation.
- One exception: the sample should be gender balanced. Males and females should be equally represented in order to allow gender analyses.
- Samples in origin and destination may be linked, but migrants with weak or no relationships at origin should not be excluded from the sample.
- Both documented and undocumented migrants should be represented in the sample.

For MAFE Senegal, 200 Senegalese were to be sampled in each country (France, Spain and Italy).
The quota method was preferred in France and Italy to collect information on Senegalese migrants. In Spain, a sample of Senegalese migrants was drawn in the Padron. This source appears as a unique sampling opportunity in Europe since it is annually updated and includes all migrants, even the undocumented ones.

The Senegalese sample in Europe was made up from two types of samples:
- a linked sample of respondents, whose contacts were obtained in Senegal through the household survey. The module D of the HH questionnaire was designed to help the collection of contacts. It had to be entered and transmitted securely to the destination countries before data collection started in Europe. The contacts validity was checked before the fieldwork began. For Senegalese in France, 156 contacts were collected but only 54% of them were actually usable (correct contacts but a large amount were not interviewed). In Italy, almost no contact could be used. The efficiency of this method varies a lot according to the context ;
- an additional sample made up in each country to reach the expected sample size. The size of the additional sample is unknown until the contacts in the origin country have been obtained. The method of selection of this sample varied across countries (selection in a municipal register, through migrant associations, street recruitment, by snowballing methods…).

Regions were selected to cover the largest possible population of Senegalese in the country.

* France *
- Target areas: 3 regions comprising 64% of Senegalese people in France (Ile de France, Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)
- Sample size: 201
- Quotas: By age, gender and socioeconomic status
- Recruitment methods: Selection from contacts obtained in Senegal, public spaces, migrant associations, snowballing, interviewers' contacts

* Italy *
- Target areas: Lombardia, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Campania
- Sample size: 205
- Quotas: By age and gender
- Recruitment methods: Selection from contacts obtained in Senegal, public spaces, migrant associations, snowballing, interviewers' contacts

* Spain *
- Target areas: 12 provinces: Almería (Andalucía), Alicante & Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana), Barcelona, Lérida, Tarragona & Gerona (Cataluña), Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid), Zaragoza (Aragón), Las Palmas (Islas Canarias), Murcia (Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia), Baleares (Islas Baleares)
- Sample size: 200 (+ an additional sample of 400 people expected in 2010)
- Quotas: Random sample from Padron
- Recruitment methods: Population register (Padron), contacts obtained in Senegal, interviewers' contacts
- Note: a quota was imposed and respected: the proportion of interviewed migrants living in areas with a large concentration of Senegalese residents had to be equivalent to the real proportion of Senegalese migrants living in those areas in the selected regions

Type datainnsamling

The general strategy was the following one:  
1. A household survey was conducted among a sample of households in the capital cities in Africa (household questionnaire in origin countries);
2. A life history survey among a sample of individual respondents was conducted in the departure countries (non migrants, return migrants and spouses of migrants). The individual respondents were selected from the households in the origin countries (individual questionnaire in origin countries);
3. A life history survey was carried out among migrants in destination countries (individual questionnaire in destination countries).
All the surveys were done using paper questionnaires through face-to-face interviews.

SENEGAL
In Senegal, the survey was organized in two stages. The first stage consisted in collecting household data. At the end of that stage, selected data of the household questionnaire were entered in order to constitute the sampling frames for individual surveys in Africa and in Europe. The household survey thus precedes the collection of life histories both in Africa and Europe.
NB: In Senegal, the interviewers who did the work in a household did also the work for the individuals of this precise household. It was a way to create a confidence relationship.
The average duration of interviews for the household questionnaire was about 45 minutes-1 hour in Senegal. The average duration of the biographic questionnaire was also around 45 minutes, but it varied greatly depending on the age and migration status of the respondents.

EUROPE
In Europe, the moment for data collection depended on the selection method. In MAFE-Senegal, the fieldwork could start only after completion of the household survey. As a consequence, the fieldwork for the biographic questionnaires was done almost at the same time in all countries.
The work of the interviewers included three stages:
o The interviewers first had to set up an appointment with respondents by using the phone contacts or another source of recruitment (except in cases persons were directly available). Interviewers needed to confirm the appointment. The choice of the place and time of the interview were left to the respondents.
o The interview was then done. The average duration of the interviews was approximately 1h45 in France. In most cases, interviews were carried out at the house of the respondents, but it also took places in various places (pubs, street, office…). The interviews were done during weekdays or week-ends, at various times.
o Finally interviewers were asked to read quickly the completed questionnaire as soon as possible after the interview, in order to detect any missing parts or inconsistencies, and correct them on the spot. Approximately one additional hour was necessary for this.
In all the countries, the respondents were offered a small gift at the end of the interview. In most countries, this was a calling card. The value of the gift varied between 5 € (Italy) and £15 (UK). In all the countries, the gift was very much appreciated. Although the gift was offered after the interview, some participants knew in advance they would receive it.
Recruitment by snowballing also meant that respondents were sometimes aware they would receive a gift. Although this may have facilitated the recruitments of some persons, it may have affected negatively the composition of the sample.

Type forskningsinstrument

The MAFE surveys rely on two different questionnaires: household and biographic. The questionnaires are almost entirely identical from one country to another. The few differences consist in:
- Cultural variables (religion, ethnic groups, matrimonial status etc.)
- New questions introduced on fostered children in the MAFE Congo and MAFE Ghana biographic questionnaires (Module on Children)
- The order of the questions relating to migration in the household questionnaire (Module A)

The Household Questionnaire:
- Used only in African countries
- Answered by a unique respondent who is usually the household head
- Contains information on the members of the household (age, sex, education...) and also on people who live outside the household and who are related to it (head's children, partners living abroad, other relatives of the head or his/her spouse who live abroad and with whom the household has been in touch within the last 12 months). The questionnaire includes a specific module aimed at obtaining contact information for each of the declared migrants. In addition, it contains specific modules on short migration histories, on relationships between each migrant and the household, and on housing conditions and owned assets.  
- Topics: socio-demographic variables of each individual, short migration histories, remittances, household assets, housing history
- Available in French (MAFE-Senegal, MAFE-Congo) and English (MAFE-Ghana)

The Biographic Questionnaire:
- Used in all African and European countries
- Answered by the migrant him/herself
- Contains life histories of all the surveyed individuals, whatever their migratory status at the time of the survey (non-migrant, return migrant, current migrant). The questionnaire contains retrospective information on the following topics: dwelling, family, work, international migration of the interviewee (including attempts to migrate, return trips to Senegal, transit migration and legal status in foreign countries), migration history of the migrant's relatives (list of their stays abroad, including dates and country names), goods and assets, and remittances and contributions to associations in the country of origin.  
- A grid was used, jointly to the questionnaire, to help the interviewee to recall important dates of his/her history
- Topics: family formation, education and employment, housing, migration, investments (housing, business, community amenities or infrastructure)...
- Available in French (MAFE-Senegal, MAFE-Congo), English (MAFE-Ghana), Italian and Spanish (MAFE-Senegal)

Karakteristikk av innsamlingssituasjonen

The MAFE surveys collect information on potentially vulnerable populations (undocumented migrants) and on sensitive subjects (remittances, legal status…). In order to facilitate the fieldwork and increase the quality of the data, it was important to carefully inform the people who were to be interviewed.  

The legal pre-requisites changed according to the country. In France (only), a legal authorization had to be obtained before starting the fieldwork. The CNIL (Commission nationale informatique et libertés) was concerned by the way the contacts were going to be obtained in Senegal and, most of all, by the sensitivity of certain variables contained in the questionnaires (ethnic group, religion). We obtained the authorization to ask these questions, but in order to keep them in our files, we had to ask to the interviewees to sign a written informed consent.
According to legal prescriptions, in all European countries, a letter was designed to explain their rights to the interviewees. In Senegal, no specific document was designed.

In most countries, a leaflet was designed and used to sensitize respondents and authorities about the MAFE project.

In advance of the survey, several communication actions have been undertaken:
- In Africa, inform neighbourhood heads / municipalities of survey by an official letter or by a visit
- Use local radio / migrants radio and chat show to present the survey
- Inform an organisation of migrants who can support the survey
- Visit the key places of the community (churches…)

Because of the complexity of the questionnaires, only interviewers with a good experience in complex surveys were recruited.  
In African countries, it was highly recommended to hire the same interviewers to conduct both household surveys and individual surveys. This approach proved to be very efficient in all the surveys.
In Europe, interviewers had to be able both to recruit the migrants and to fill correctly the questionnaire. As a general rule, it was preferable to have a relatively small number of well-trained interviewers than a large number of interviewers.
Overall, around 20 to 25 interviewers and supervisors were involved in data collection in each country.

The number of the interviewers per survey varied between 8 (survey among Ghanaians in the UK) and 17 (Netherlands). In all the countries, both male and females interviewers were hired; most of them had higher education and some experience with data collection. In some countries (e.g. France), some of them were professional interviewers. The selected interviewers were not necessarily from the same country as the respondents, but most of them also had foreign origins.
For instance, 7 of the 12 interviewers in Belgium were of foreign origin, 5 of them from DR Congo. In the Netherlands, most interviewers were from Ghanaian origin. The fact that many of the interviewers were themselves of foreign origin seemed to have positively influenced the willingness of interviewees to participate in the survey.

Directly after being filled, questionnaires were checked by the interviewers and supervisors. They were then sent to a small team of editors for an in-depth reading. The editors consisted of 9 people in Senegal, 6 in Ghana and 5 in DR Congo. The team had followed the same training as the interviewers, and also received a specific training for editing the questionnaires.
Data entry was performed using MS Access programs prepared by INED.

Vekting

SENEGAL
The computation of sampling weights relies on computing sampling probabilities at each stage. The product of sampling probabilities at each stage gives the overall sampling probability. Taking the inverse of the sampling probability gives the inflation factor. These factors are adjusted (taking into account non-response and by trimming the weights). They are then normalized, so that the sum of weights is equal to the sample size.  
The initial "household weighting" takes into account the sampling probability of the DR and then the households. It was corrected by the non-response by multiplying it by the opposite of the rate of answer, estimated by strata of the DR and strata of the household (only available variables for the answering and non-answering households).
The initial "individual weighting" is equal to the product of the rectified household weight and of the opposite of the sampling probability in the household. It also has corrected by the non-response by multiplying it by the opposite of the rates of answer of the individuals, calculated by homogeneous groups obtained by logistic regression. The explanatory variables kept for this regression were the strata of the individual, sex, age, the size of the household, and the rank of contact.

EUROPE
In the European countries, similar sample sizes were selected for males and females, resulting in an overrepresentation or underrepresentation in the MAFE samples. Similarly, older people were usually oversampled. For these reasons, post-stratification weights are computed to give each observation its proper weight and to match the samples as closely as possible to selected population characteristics.
Senegalese migrants in France and Italy were selected using quota sampling with quotas set by age groups and sex, while the sample in Spain was a probabilistic sample from the population register, augmented by Senegalese respondents identified through contacts in the household survey in Senegal. Given this mix, weights for Spain were also computed by poststratification and not by computing sampling probabilities.  
The procedure for constructing post-stratification weights in the case of MAFE-Senegal consisted of the following steps:  
- Computation of target population estimates  
- Computation of initial inflation weights  
- Computation of poststratification weight

In the MAFE data, all survey weights have been rescaled (normalized) so that the sum of weights corresponds to the sample sizes of households and individuals respectively while the mean of the weight variables equals one.
For further details about weights, please read the MAFE methodological note 6 entitled "Sampling and Computation Weights in the MAFE Surveys" (see related materials).

Svarrate

SENEGAL

In the MAFE Senegal survey, the quantitative objectives were not completely fulfilled:
- The selected number of households was 1320 in Senegal, but only 1141 were successfully interviewed, including:
- Non-migrant household : 458
- Household with at least 1 returnee: 205
- Household with at least 1 current migrant: 617
- Household with returnee(s) and current migrant(s): 139
This represents a response rate of 86.4% (90% was expected).

For the biographic questionnaire, 1 387 individuals were selected, only 1 062 were interviewed, including:
- Returnees: 193
- Partners left behind: 101
- Other non-migrants: 768
At the end, the drop was of 23.6%, while a drop of 10% was expected.  

The overall response rate in Senegal is 66.1%.

EUROPE
600 Senegalese migrants were successfully interviewed: 200 in France, 198 in Spain, and 202 in Italy.

Andre former for dataevaluering

A methodological note entitled "Sampling international migrants with origin-based snowballing method: New evidence on biases and limitations", written by Cris Beauchemin and Amparo González-Ferrer, can be found in the study's related materials, as well as another methodological note in french "Biais de non-réponse dans l'enquête Migrations entre l'Afrique et l'Europe (MAFE-Sénégal)" written by Nicolas Razafindratsima, Stéphane Legleye and Cris Beauchemin.

Kompletthet av lagret studie

SENEGAL
In the three African countries, data entry started only after the end of data collection.  
In Senegal, data entry was supervised by a member of the staff of IRD with a strong experience in data entry. That person worked in close collaboration with the local coordinator of the survey and with the INED survey service, in charge of the data entry program. His role was to manage the questionnaires, to ensure troubleshooting with the data entry programs, and to run a consistency tests program. The program was run every night, and the data entry agents started the next day by correcting inconsistencies found by the program. When the errors were due to data collection (and not to data entry), the data collection coordinator was in charge of correcting it. On average, 7 questionnaires were entered per day per person.

EUROPE
Data entry was done after the questionnaires had been corrected and coded.
In MAFE Senegal countries (France, Italy, Spain) a first version of the program developed at INED in 2008 was used. While several problems were encountered at the beginning of data entry, they were quickly fixed. Most of the problems with the program were experienced by the French team, but Spain and Italy did not have major troubles. Another version of the program was developed for the second series of country.
In spite of the problems encountered during data collection, the data entry programs were overall very good and allowed the research teams to produce data files that are directly comparable.
In all the countries, consistency tests were performed at the end of data entry, using the program prepared by INED. These programs allowed detecting inconsistencies due to errors during data entry, or that had gone unnoticed during the editing phase. These inconsistencies were corrected in the data base, and programs run again until no inconsistencies were left. Some difficulties were encountered with early versions of the program (some ‘false errors’ were identified), but most were quickly fixed by INED.

Sitatkrav

Every user of the MAFE data must cite this paragraph in its publications:
English version : "The MAFE project is coordinated by INED (C. Beauchemin) and is formed, additionally by the Université catholique de Louvain (B. Schoumaker), Maastricht University (V. Mazzucato), the Université Cheikh Anta Diop (P. Sakho), the Université de Kinshasa (J. Mangalu), the University of Ghana (P. Quartey), the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (P. Baizan), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (A. González-Ferrer), the Forum Internazionale ed Europeo di Ricerche sull'Immigrazione (E. Castagnone), and the University of Sussex (R. Black). The MAFE project received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement 217206. The MAFE-Senegal survey was conducted with the financial support of INED, the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (France), the Région Ile de France and the FSP programme 'International Migrations, territorial reorganizations and development of the countries of the South'. For more details, see: http://www.mafeproject.com/"
French version : "Le projet MAFE est coordonné par l'INED (C. Beauchemin), en partenariat avec l'Université catholique de Louvain (B. Schoumaker), la Maastricht University (V. Mazzucato), l'Université Cheikh Anta Diop (P. Sakho), l'Université de Kinshasa (J. Mangalu), l'University of Ghana (P. Quartey), l'Universitat Pompeu Fabra (P. Baizan), le Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (A. González -Ferrer), le Forum Internazionale ed Europeo di Ricerche sull'Immigrazione (E. Castagnone), et l'University of Sussex (R. Black). Le projet MAFE a reçu un financement du Septième Programme-Cadre de la Communauté européenne (subvention 217206). L'enquête MAFE-Sénégal a été réalisée grâce au soutien financier de l'INED, de l'Agence Nationale de la Recherche, de la région Ile de France, et du programme FSP 'Migrations internationales, recompositions territoriales et développement dans les pays du Sud'. Pour plus d'information, voir : http://www.mafeproject.com/"

In addition, to refer to the survey design, the following documents can also be refered to:
Beauchemin, C. (2012). Migrations between Africa and Europe: Rationale for a Survey Design. MAFE Methodological Note 5. Paris, Ined: 45.
Schoumaker, B., C. Mezger, N. Razafindratsima and A. Bringé (2013). Sampling and Computation Weights in the MAFE Surveys. MAFE Methodological Note 6: 73.

These MAFE methodological notes are available at: http://mafeproject.site.ined.fr/en/methodo/methodological_notes/

Relatert materiell

Website

Official website of the MAFE project

Leaflet

Presents the main objectives of the survey, and aims at informing the respondents on the use of the data. In addition to information on the objectives of the survey, the leaflet also includes contacts of the persons in charge of the MAFE project in the country.
The leaflet was used at different stages of the project. In Mafe Senegal, it was used before the surveys to inform migrant associations in France and to sensitize the populations of the neighbourhoods selected for the survey in Dakar. The leaflet was also handed over to all respondents in France and Spain, and to those who were particularly interested in Senegal.

Household questionnaire Senegal (FR)

Biographic questionnaire Senegal and France (FR)

Events grid Senegal and France (FR)

Biographic questionnaire Italy (IT)

Events grid Italy (IT)

Biographic questionnaire Spain (SP)

Events grid Spain (SP)

Interviewer's handbook - Household questionnaire (FR)

Interviewer's handbook - Biographic questionnaire - part 1 (FR)

Interviewer's handbook - Biographic questionnaire - part 2 (FR)

Interviewer's handbook - Biographic questionnaire - part 3 (FR)

Interviewer's handbook - Biographic questionnaire - part 4 (FR)

Interviewer's handbook - Household questionnaire (EN)

Interviewer's handbook - Biographic questionnaire - part 1 (EN)

Interviewer's handbook - Biographic questionnaire - part 2 (EN)

Interviewer's handbook - Biographic questionnaire - part 3 (EN)

Interviewer's handbook - Biographic questionnaire - part 4 (EN)

Methodological note 1

Beauchemin, C., Kabbanji, L., Lessault, D., & Schoumaker, B., 'Migrations between Africa and Europe: Survey Guidelines', April 2010 (EN)

The objective of this document is to present the MAFE survey methodology. It includes a presentation of all the tools used in the 9 countries. This document is complemented by a data collection report. It was primarily written on the basis of the MAFE-Senegal experience in order to ease its replication on Congolese and Ghanaian populations.

Methodological note 2

Schoumaker, B, & Diagne, A., 'Migrations between Africa and Europe: Data Collection Report', May 2010 (EN)

This report is a synthesis of the country reports in Africa and Europe, and was prepared by the UCL team, in charge of the coordination of data collection in the countries participating in the MAFE project. The first part of the report is on data collection in Africa, and the second part on Europe.

Methodological note 3

Beauchemin, C. & González-Ferrer, A. 'Sampling international migrants with origin-based snowballing method: New evidence on biases and limitations', Demographic Research, 25 (3), 103-134, July 2011 (EN)

This paper provides a methodological assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of the origin-based snowballing technique as a reliable method to construct representative samples of international migrants in destination areas.

Methodological note 4

Razafindratsima, N., Legleye, S., Beauchemin, C., 'Biais de non-réponse dans l'enquête Migrations entre l'Afrique et l'Europe (MAFE-Sénégal)', (FR)

L'objectif de cette note est d'évaluer les biais engendrés par la non-réponse totale de niveau ménage et de niveau individuel dans le volet sénégalais de l'enquête MAFE.

Methodological note 5

Beauchemin, C., 'Migrations between Africa and Europe: Rationale for a Survey Design', January 2012 (EN)

The paper first presents the scientific objectives of the MAFE project, briefly pointing up the limitations of the existing literature in four domains: patterns of migration, determinants of departure and return, migration and family changes, migrants' economic integration and re-integration. The paper then presents the methodological principles of the MAFE survey design and the choices made to produce a new dataset containing information on the four aforementioned topics.
Beyond the MAFE project, the paper highlights the classical problems in survey methodology facing all data producers in the domain of international migration, and advocates a more (self-)critical approach in this field of literature.

Methodological note 6

Schoumaker, B. & Mezger, C., 'Sampling and computation weights in the MAFE Surveys', January 2013 (EN)

This note describes the sampling strategy and the computation of weights in the MAFE surveys. The first part explains designs in Ghana, DR Congo and Senegal, the second part describes the computation of weights in the European samples, followed by the description of the computation of normalized weights to be used with pooled data sets in the third part. The fourth part provides a short review of the literature about the use of weights in different types of analysis. The review provides the background to the final section, which contains indications regarding use of weights for analysis with MAFE data.

Methodological note 8

Thevenin, M., ’Manipulation des bases biographiques STATA’, Janvier 2015 (FR)

L'objectif de ce tutoriel est de donner des outils de manipulation des modules biographiques de l'enquête MAFE avec STATA, en particulier lorsqu’il s'agit de mettre en oeuvre une analyse biographique à temps discret.

Methodological note 9

Thevenin, M., Rossi, D., ’Manipulation des bases biographiques SAS’, Janvier 2015 (FR)

L'objectif de ce tutoriel est de donner des outils de manipulation des modules biographiques de l'enquête MAFE avec SAS, dans le cadre d'une mise en oeuvre dune analyse biographique à temps discret.

Introduction to the MAFE datasets

The aim of this document is to provide an introduction to the MAFE datasets, giving basic information to help users understand the structure and content of all MAFE datasets.

MAFE Senegal complete codebook

Contains in one document the entire codebook of the MAFE Senegal databases + all information available about the survey

Relaterte studier

IE0216B - Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE DR Congo (2009)

IE0216C - Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE Ghana (2009-2010)

Relaterte publikasjoner

Bibliography

Beskrivelse av datafiler

Filnavn

sn_qm_household.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

One line per HH, i.e. a total of 1141 HH in Senegal
The dataset contains information on:  
- HH characteristics (computed variables from modules A & B);
- HH head characteristics (all variables from module A, including the computed variables created for the dataset "qm_indiv"). Variables names: hh_a1 to hh_a21;
- Housing and assets of the HH head (module E);
- Information on the conduct of the interview (module O).

Filstruktur

Registreringsgruppe

Totalt antall enheter

1141

Totalt antall variabler

197

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

The variable weight_hdd represents normalized weights to be used in the analyses related to the household data, whatever the file used.

Filnavn

sn_qm_indiv.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

One line per declared individual in the HH questionnaire, i.e. a total of 12350 individuals in Senegal (including individuals living abroad, i.e. a total of 1203 migrants in Senegal)

Observations in this data file correspond to:
- Individuals living in the household at the time of the survey (A4=1)
- Individuals living outside the household (A4=2) included in the roster if they enter into one of the following categories:
   */ children of the HH head who no longer live with her/him, whatever her/his place of residence;
   */ partners of household members who live outside Senegal;
   */ parents of household members who live outside Senegal;
   */ other people living outside Senegal and who had regular contact with the household during the 12 months before the survey.
    
WARNING! Don't forget that only part of the people listed in the household questionnaires, i.e. in "qm_indiv" are actual members of the households.
Furthermore, keep in mind that some individuals, in this dataset, never lived in Congo, Ghana or Senegal. For example:
- Descendants of migrants, born in the destination country of their parents. Ex: the HH head is a grandfather whose son has immigrated to France, where he had children. These children can be mentioned by the grandfather in the third category "other persons living outside Senegal but who have kept regular contact with the HH during the 12 months before the survey", even if they have never lived in Senegal.
- Relatives of immigrants in Congo, Ghana or Senegal. Ex: the HH head is an immigrant woman from Angola. She has left behind (in her home country) her husband and children. Even if they have never lived in Congo, she mentioned them in the HH questionnaire because they are in the third category.

The dataset contains all variables of the questionnaire and some additional computed variables.

Filstruktur

Registreringsgruppe

Totalt antall enheter

12350

Totalt antall variabler

136

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

The variable weight_hdd represents normalized weights to be used in the analyses related to the household data, whatever the file used.

Filnavn

sn_qb_general.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per interviewee !!
This dataset contains variables that do not very over time, i.e. answers to the introductory module of the questionnaire and to variables from the inter-modules of the questionnaire, plus some computed variables.

As for variables statu_mig, migr_cur, migr_ret, migr_cjt and migr_no: a same individual can be coded 1 in several of the migratory status variables; e.g. a same individual can be both returnee and a partner of a migrant at the time of the survey.
NB: these variables may show results different from the stratification variable (strata_ind), which content was determined by answers given by proxy respondents in the household surveys. These variables (migr_*, presented in this table) are computed using the information obtained in the biographic surveys.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

1668

Totalt antall variabler

153

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_union.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per union for the interviewees which declared at least one union, in addition of one line per individual who had no partnership !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Union.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

2347

Totalt antall variabler

37

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_children.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per child for the interviewees who declared at least one child, in addition of one line per individual who had no child !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Children.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

5295

Totalt antall variabler

28

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_house.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per house for all the interviewees (everybody had to declare at least one house) !!
This dataset contains:
- all the answers to the module Housing.
- a series of dichotomous variables created from the question q307.
 
All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

7124

Totalt antall variabler

49

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_activity.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per activity for all the interviewees (everybody declares at least one activity) !!
This dataset contains:
- all the answers to the module Activity.
- a series of dichotomous variables created from the question q407.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

7293

Totalt antall variabler

46

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_assets.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per property for each person who declares at least one property and one line per individual with no asset !!
This dataset contains:
- all the answers to the module Assets & Business.
- a series of dichotomous variables created from the questions q509, q514 and q515.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

2097

Totalt antall variabler

78

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_mig_attempts.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per attempt for each person who declared at least one attempt and one line for the other interviewees !!
This dataset contains:
- all the answers to the module Migration Attempts.
- a series of dichotomous variables created from the question q805.
 
All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

1729

Totalt antall variabler

50

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_migration.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per long & short stay outside Senegal for each person who declares at least one stay and one line per individual who did no stay abroad !!
This dataset contains:
- all the answers to the module Long & Short stay outside Senegal.
- a series of dichotomous variables created from the questions q610, q614, q615, q616, q617, q619.
 
All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

2064

Totalt antall variabler

159

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_return.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per return to Senegal for each person who declared at least one return and one line for the other interviewees !!
Note: returns listed in this module are returns that lasted at least 1 year and shorter returns but with the intention of settling. Other returns (less than a year without intention to resettle) are listed in the qb_short_return datafiles.
This dataset contains:
- all the answers to the module Return to Senegal.
- a series of dichotomous variables created from the questions q707 and q708.
 
All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

1729

Totalt antall variabler

70

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_network.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per migration (for stays of at least one year) for each person in the network of the interviewee, and one line for each interviewee who has nobody abroad !!
This dataset contains:
- all the answers to the module Migrations of Family Members and Personal Network.
- computed variables: id_enf, id_uni, id_net and id_netmig.
 
All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

6690

Totalt antall variabler

35

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_short_return.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per return to Senegal of less than a year for each person who declared at least one short return (without a resettlement intention) or one line for a multiple return, and one line for all other individuals !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Return to Senegal of Less than a Year.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

2570

Totalt antall variabler

21

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_short_stay.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per stay of less than a year outside Senegal for each person who declared at least one stay !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Stays of Less than a Year outside Senegal.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

2642

Totalt antall variabler

23

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_citizenship.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per citizenship for each person (everybody should have at least one citizenship) !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Citizenship.
 
All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

1775

Totalt antall variabler

23

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_asylum.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per asylum application for each person who has made at least one application, and one line for the other individuals !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Asylum.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

1671

Totalt antall variabler

24

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_residence_permit.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per residence permit for each person who has had at least one permit, and one line for the other persons !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Residence Permits.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

2447

Totalt antall variabler

26

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_work_permit.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per work permit for each person who has had at least one permit, and one line for the others !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Work Permits.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

2221

Totalt antall variabler

25

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_transfer.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per transfer for each person who has sent remittances at least once, and one line for the other persons !!
This dataset contains:
- all the answers to the module Transfers.
- the created variable nom_transr which gives the total number of transfers made by Ego.
 
All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

1735

Totalt antall variabler

24

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Filnavn

sn_qb_association.NSDstat

Innhold av filene

!! One line per period during which each person has joined a migrant association, and one line for the other persons !!
This dataset contains all the answers to the module Associations.

All MAFE's biographic files include the same 18 variables listed below:
- ident
- id_country
- n_menage
- n_indiv
- num_dr
- strata_area
- strata_hh
- strata_ind
- q1
- q1a
- age_survey
- q18
- flag_age
- flag_arrival
- flag_visitor (exception: only available for MAFE Senegal)
- weight_eur
- weight_all
- weight_ctry

Totalt antall enheter

1680

Totalt antall variabler

21

Filtype

Nesstar 200801

Manglende data

Due to the files conversion, all "Refuse to answer", "No answer" and "Don't know" values appear here in missing frequencies.

Notater

All "Yes" / "No" answers have been recoded, in order to facilitate analyses. In the questionnaire code, "No" was 2. It is now 0 in the dataset code. In both cases "Yes" is 1.
The multiple answers variables are those where respondents could give more than one answer. To have a better view of these answers and to make the analysis easier, these variables are dichotomised in the datasets: for each possible modality a dichotomous variable was created (0 = No ; 1 = Yes).

There are three different weight variables in the data files of the MAFE individual surveys. They were computed at three different levels:
- weight_ctry is the variable to use when working on a single country (for example, the Senegalese population sampled only in Senegal, or in any single European country).
- weight_eur is the variable to use when working on the European countries pooled together (for example, the Senegalese population sampled in France, Italy and Spain). It shoud not be used if the analyses include individuals surveyed in Africa.
- weight_all is the variable to use when working on all countries of the MAFE survey (for example, Senegalese population from Senegalese, French, Italian and Spanish samples).
For details on weight computation, see Schoumaker et al. (2013), a document that also provides information on when and how to use weights with the MAFE data (Methodological note 6 - see related materials).

Last ned

Metadata Index

Dette er metadata-indeksen for en Nesstar Server.

Nesstar er et verktøy for analyse, visualisering og nedlasting av datasett.
Bruk knappen "Utforsk datasett" for å åpne datasettet.