Dataset: MAFE Contextual Database


Despite increasing public and policy attention on migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe, this phenomenon remains poorly understood and European polices may be ineffective. MAFE project aims at overcoming this lack of understanding by filling a gap in data availability on African international migration. The project collected data on the characteristics and behaviour of migrants from Senegal, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ghana, which together account for over a quarter of all African migration, to Europe (Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK). These data allow to study not only migration as a one-way flow from Africa to Europe, but also return migration, circulation and transnational practices. Four key subjects are explored: patterns of migration, determinants of migration, migration and development, migrations and families.  

Because migration is not only determined by the individual and the family levels, the MAFE project also collected data on the national level. These data constitute the MAFE Contextual Database and are presented in this study. The database consists of about 100 indicators covering the 9 MAFE countries about domains such as demography, economics, unemployment, education, political context. These data was collected using international databases (e.g., Eurostat, World Bank, Demographic Health Surveys, OECD). They can be used to describe the socio-demographic, economic and political contexts of countries of origin and countries of destination. They could also be combined to MAFE survey datasets in statistical (multilevel) analyses.  

Further information on the project and collected data can be found on the MAFE project webpage:

Variable Groups

Full Title

MAFE Contextual Database

Alternative Title


Identification Number


Authoring Entity

Name Affiliation


Name Affiliation Abbreviation Role
CASTALDO Adriana University of Sussex, UNITED KINGDOM First data collection and identification of relevant sources.
CAPORALI Arianna INED Data collection, cross-check of different sources, choice of comparable data, preparation of metadata.
ROSSI Daniele INED Data preparation and formatting.

Date of Production


Funding Agency/Sponsor

Name Abbreviation Role Grant
European Community's Seventh Framework Programme 217206
Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques INED 217206

Data Distributor

Name Affiliation Abbreviation
Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques INED

Bibliographic Citation

In any work emanating from research based on the MAFE Contextual Database, I will acknowledge the database.  

A) If the time series downloaded from the MAFE Contextual Database comes from several sources, you might cite as follows:  

Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE (2014). MAFE Contextual Database. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques (distributor).  
Retrieved from: on Day/Month/Year.

B) If the time series downloaded from the MAFE Contextual Database comes only from one source (e.g. Eurostat), you might cite as follows:  

Original Source [e.g. Eurostat, © European Union, 1995-2010] (Data obtained through the MAFE Contextual Database. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques (distributor). Retrieved from: on Day/Month/Year on Day/Month/Year).

Please check the original source for further information on the use of the data and proper citation.

List of Keywords

Time Period Covered

Start End Cycle
1950 2013

Date of Collection

Start End Cycle
2014-02-16 2014-07-16


Geographic Coverage

National level.

Kind of Data

Aggregated data.

Time Method

Yearly data

Data Collector

Mode of Data Collection

Data collection procedure was aimed at identifying, for each indicator, comparative data over time and across countries for the greatest number of years possible.  
To this end, for each indicator, cross-checking of data from different sources was performed. Selected time series are the result of this cross-checking and may be the combination of different sources. Users are warned whenever comparative data are not available.

USED DATA AND METADATA SOURCES are listed under "Other Study Description Materials - Other References Note" and indicated for each indicator.


The complete MAFE Contextual database can be accessed free of charges and without any restriction. Users are asked to properly cite the database in their works and publications.


MAFE Contextual Database is available both in Excel format and STATA (version 12) format.


The authors and producers bear no responsibility for the uses of the MAFE Contextual Database, or for interpretations or inferences based on these uses.

Related Materials

MAFE Contextual Database - Excel file

MAFE Contextual Database - STATA file

MAFE Contextual Database - Documentation


Official website of the MAFE project.

Introduction to the MAFE datasets

The aim of this document is to provide an introduction to the MAFE datasets, giving basic information to help users understand the structure and content of all MAFE datasets, including MAFE Contextual Database.

MAFE policy database (ImPol)

This documents presents the MAFE policy database. This is a work in progress. Further information can be obtained by contacting its authors: Amparo González Ferrer (

Related Studies

IE0216A - Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE Senegal (2008)

IE0216B - Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE DR Congo (2009)

IE0216C - Migrations between Africa and Europe - MAFE Ghana (2009-2010)

Related Publications

Bibliography on MAFE

Other References Note

Albert Kraler, David Reichel, Alexandra König, Martin Baldwin-Edwards and Müge Simsek (2014): Final Report - Feasibility Study on the Labour Market Trajectories of Regularised Immigrants within the European Union (REGANE I). Vienna: ICMPD

This working paper provides estimates on regularisation granted through regularization programmes.

Center for Systemic Peace - Integrated Network for Societal Conflict Research - Political Instability Task Force (PITF), State Failure Problem Set

This dataset contains annual data on cases of ethnic war, revolutionary war, adverse regime change, and genocide/politicide (also, consolidated cases of political instability), including annual indicators of numbers of rebels, area affected, and numbers of deaths.

Centre d'étude de Gestion Démographique pour les Administrations Publiques (GéDAP) and the Berlin Institute for Comparative Social Research (BIVS) on behalf of the European Commission - Annual Statistical Report on Migration and Asylum in Europe 2003: EMN Synthesis Report, 01 January 2004

Database on Irregular Migration

This database offers estimates on irregular migrants in Europe. It was developed in the framework of EU-funded research project CLANDESTINO (2007-2009).

Database on Irregular Migration - Main Methodological Reference

Eurostat - Statistics Database

It offers a whole range of statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions. It covers European countries and, for selected mainly economic indicators, also other western countries.

European Migration Network (EMN) - Annual Report on Asylum and Migration Statistics

The EMN collects statistics from Member States across a range of migration and asylum themes. These statistics inform the Commission's Annual Reports on Immigration and Asylum.

European Migration Network (EMN) - Annual Report on Asylum and Migration Statistics 2006, October 2009

European Migration Network (EMN) - Annual Report on Asylum and Migration Statistics 2007, December 2010

FAO Statistics Division

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations provides through its Statistics Division statistics on areas of agriculture, forestry and fisheries, land and water resources and use, climate, environment, population, gender, nutrition, poverty, rural development, education and health as well as many others.

ILO Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM)

This is a comprehensive database of country-level data on 18 key indicators of the labour market from 1980 to the latest available year.

Kraler, A. (2009). Regularisation: A misguided option or part and parcel of a comprehensive policy response to irregular migration?. IMISCOE Working Paper No. 24. February 2009

This working paper provides estimates on regularisation granted through regularization programmes.

Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX)

The MIPEX measures integration policies in all European Union Member States plus Norway, Switzerland, Canada and the USA. It is based on public laws, policies and research.

Jan Niessen et al. Migrant Integration Policy Index (2007) British Council and Migration Policy Group, Brussels.

Thomas Huddleston et al. Migrant Integration Policy Index (2011) British Council and Migration Policy Group, Brussels

OECD Family Database

It provides 70 cross-national indicators on family outcomes and family policies across the OECD countries, its enhanced engagement partners and EU member states.


This database offers data provided by OECD network of correspondents, constituting the Continuous Reporting System on Migration (SOPEMI). It covers most OECD Member countries as well as the Baltic States, Bulgaria and Romania. Indicators concern the flows and stocks of the total immigrant population and immigrant labour force, together with data on acquisition of nationality. Data have not necessarily been harmonised at international level.

OECD Population and Vital Statistics

The Population and Vital Statistics dataset presents components of change in the population during one year and mid-year population data for the 34 OECD member countries.

OECD.Stat Extracts

It gathers data from OECD databases available via OECD iLibrary. Data and metadata for OECD countries and selected non-member economies.

RAMON Eurostat's Metadata Server

It make available a large stock of past and present metadata in order to help users in the analysis of statistical data.

The Demographic and Health Surveys STAT compiler

It gives the possibility to make custom tables using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for about 70 countries in Africa, South America, Eastern Europe and Asia. These surveys are nationally-representative household surveys that provide data for a wide range of indicators in the areas of population, health, and nutrition.

The Human Fertility Database

This database provides free and user-friendly access to detailed and high-quality data on period and cohort fertility for about 30 countries. The data are based on official vital statistics. Warranty of data comparability across time and countries is sought through uniform methodology.

The Human Mortality Database

It contains open, international access to detailed population and mortality data for the 37 countries or areas.

The World Bank – World Development Indicators

This is World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized international sources. It is available through the The World Bank DataBank tool.

Transparency International

This is an independent organization collaborating with partners in government, business and civil society to put effective measures in place to tackle corruption. Among other things, this organization provides the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) which measures how corrupts are public sectors. The 2013 CPI covers 177 countries.

UNECE Statistical Database

This database provides free access to macroeconomic, gender, transport and forestry statistics. Maintained by the Statistical Division of the UNECE Secretariat, it covers all the UNECE countries.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics

It contains indicators on domains such as education, literacy, science, technology and innovation, culture, communication and information, for most countries in the World.

United Nations Development Program - Human Development Report

Published since 1990, the Human Development Report was set to be an intellectually independent, empirically grounded analysis of development issues, trends, progress and policies in the World. It provides data on following indexes: Gender Development Index (GDI), Human Development Index (HDI), Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), Gender Inequality Index (GII), and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division - World Population Policies Database

It provides comprehensive data on evolution since 1976 of Government views and policies with respect to population size and growth, population age structure, fertility, reproductive health and family planning, health and mortality, spatial distribution, and internal and international migration within the context of demographic, social and economic change. The Database is updated biennially by conducting a detailed country-by-country study on multiple sources including the United Nations Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division - World Population Prospects

It provides global demographic estimates and projections undertaken by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. It includes main indicators about population trends, fertility, mortality and migration.

UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation

It provides harmonized estimates within the UN system on child mortality. It is led by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO). It also includes the World Bank and the United Nations Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs as full members.


Metadata Index

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